Viet Nam Political Structure

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The stability and policy making of Vietnam’s political system have supported Vietnam’s rapid economic and social growth. This system has
admirably demonstrated the capability to craft and implement policy to enable Vietnam’s integration into the global economy and the country’s positive engagement with foreign business communities. This capability has been clearly displayed in both buoyant and stagnant economic conditions. It is well positioned to continue to support Vietnam’s evolution from a lower-middle income country to an industrial country in the near future.

Vietnam is a socialist country operating under the leadership of the Communist Party. A nation-wide congress (National Assembly) of
Vietnam’s Communist Party is held every five years determining the country’s orientation and strategies and adopting its chief policies on
solutions for socio-economic development. The National Congress elects the Central Committee which in turn elects the Politburo.

Political Structure in Vietnam (Source: Wikipedia)

NATIONAL ASSEMBLY

The National Assembly is the highest law-making body in Vietnam. It comprises of delegates who are elected for a five-year term from various
strata of people and different ethnic groups from across country. The National Assembly is both the supreme state authority and the unique legislative body and has the power to promulgate and amend the Constitution and Laws. The National Assembly meets twice a year.
The Standing Committee of the National Assembly is the permanent executive body of the National Assembly. Its principal functions are
the interpretation of the Constitution, Laws and Ordinances, the control of their implementatio and the supervision of the activity of the Government, the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuracy.

THE PRESIDENT OF VIETNAM

The President, as the Head of State, is elected by the National Assembly from its members to represent Viet Nam in domestic and foreign affairs for a fiveyear tenure. The President has the right to proclaim Laws and Ordinances passed by the National Assembly and the Standing Committee. The President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and Chairman of the Council for Defense and Security. In foreign affairs, the President has
the authority to appoint ambassadors and to sign international agreements and treaties.
The President appoints and dismisses the Prime Minister and the members of the Government on the basis of resolutions of the National Assembly
or its Standing Committee. Furthermore, the President has the right to nominate key officials such as the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and
the Chief Procurator of the Supreme Procuracy, subject to the National Assembly’s approval.

THE GOVERNMENT

The Government is the highest executive organ of the State. The Prime Minister is the leader of the Government. The Prime Minister is responsible
for the day-to-day operations of the Government. The Vietnamese Government currently has 20 ministries and 6 ministerial-level bodies

 European Council President Donald Tusk with PM of Vietnam Nguyen Xuan Phuc
(Source: europa.eu)

THE PEOPLE’S COURTS AND PEOPLE’S PROSECUTORS

The Constitution establishes a three-level judicial system comprising District Courts, Provincial Courts and the Supreme People’s Court. In
addition, there is a system of people’s organs of control acting as a procuracy or public prosecutor to oversee the observance of laws
by judicial bodies and to exercise the power of public prosecution.

THE PEOPLE’S COUNCILS AND PEOPLE’S COMMITTEES

Viet Nam has 58 provinces and 5 cities directly under central authority, namely Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hai Phong, Da Nang, and Can Tho. Provinces are subdivided into districts, provincial cities and municipalities. Districts are further divided into communes and townships. Cities directly under the central authorities are made up of districts.
Urban districts are divided into precincts, and rural districts are made up of communes. People’s Councils of various administrative levels are elected by the population of the locality. People’s Councils are responsible for the
supervision of the implementation of the laws, policies and tasks at the local level, and for taking decisions on local socio-economic development
programs and budgets. People’s Committees of various levels are the executive arm of the People’s Councils. They are also local administrative
authorities, and report to the People’s Councils of the same level. Chairmen, vice chairmen and members of the People’s Committees are elected by People’s Councils.

Source: VCCI Report

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